23. mai 2019

Armand-Jean du Plessis (1585–1642), Cardinal Richelieu, served as Louis XIII's chief minister; Alphonse-Louis du Plessis de Richelieu (1582–1653), French Carthusian bishop and Cardinal; Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1696–1788), marshal of France, grandnephew of the cardinal; Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon (1720–1782), … The guns, mounted on separate cradles, were 1.85 meters (6.1 ft) apart. In the same way, both powers reserved the right to employ their replacement capital ship tonnage allocation (70,000-long-ton (71,123 t)) as they saw fit, subject to Treaty limits: not only were two battleships of 35,000-long-ton (35,562 t) possible, but also three of 23,000-long-ton (23,369 t) or four of 17,500-long-ton (17,781 t).[18]. All Vichya Dominion ships receive 1.5% (6%) less damage. But on the Dunkerque, with a 31.10 m (102.25 ft) beam and 330 mm (13.0 in) guns, the four barrels of each turret were not mounted independently (in separate cradles) because this would have meant an unduly large barbette diameter. French aircraft carrier PA2 (now cancelled) would potentially have been named Richelieu. 911 men in 1950 (incomplete), 8 × 380 mm (15.0 in)/45 Modèle 1935 guns in quadruple turrets at the bow They were decommissioned in the 1960s. The main turrets were protected with a 405 mm (15.9 in) thick armor on the barbette; 430 mm (17 in) armor on the faces, inclined to 30°; from 170 mm (6.7 in) to 195 mm (7.7 in) on the roof; 270 mm (11 in) on the turret I rear wall; and 260 mm (10 in) on the turret II rear wall. [lower-alpha 5], But neither France nor Italy were intending to build battleships similar to the most recent American, British, or Japanese battleships: very heavily armed and armored. Internally, it resembled contemporary U.S. Navy 356 mm shells. However, during 1941, an inquiry commission, whose chairman was Admiral de Penfentenyo de Kervéréguen concluded to a misconception of the shell base. Ships of the French Navy named Richelieu Eight days later, on 24 July 1934, the Conseil Superieur de la Marine, the French equivalent of the Board of Admiralty, released the specification of the new French battleships as follows : Thirteen months later, the Service Technique des Constructions Navales, (S.T.C.N.) [109] It was then the greatest mechanical power installed on a battleship. Due to the advance of German troops, the battleship left Brest bound for Dakar on 18 June, at 16.00, escorted by destroyers Fougueux and Frondeur. The German Reichsmarine had ordered two units similar to the Deutschland, namely the Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee, which outgunned all existing heavy cruisers. From Algiers to Toulon, where she arrived on 1 October 1944, fifty two months after having left France, she hosted Amiral Lemonnier, Chief of the Navy General Staff. Illuminating shells (100 mm (3.9 in) OEcl Model 1928) were provided to replace the 152 mm (6.0 in) OEcl Model 1936. It appeared that the previous French proposals' armament might be retained and that the speed might be no more than 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph), but the most important feature was that the armor had to be thicker to resist 280-millimetre (11 in) shells. [77], The French Naval Board in April 1935 resolved to fit the Richelieu with five 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets in the same placement as for the 130 mm (5.1 in) battery on the Dunkerque. When Germany laid down the two Bismarck -class battleships in November 1935 and June 1936, France ordered the second Richelieu, Jean Bart. [63] This weight was: less than the 181 tonnes (178 long tons) barrel on the Yamato,[65] or the 130 long tons (132 t) barrel on the Nelson;[67] nearly the same weight as the 112 tonnes (110 long tons) barrel on the Nagato,[65] the 109 tonnes (107 long tons) barrel on the Bismarck,[71] the 107 long tons (109 t) barrel on the Iowa,[66] the 102 tonnes (100 long tons) barrel on Littorio,[64] or the 97 long tons (99 t) Queen Elizabeth barrel; and more than the 80 long tons (81 t) King George V barrel.[67]. 1 turret, after they have been relined, and she received, in the No. On 7 July, the day after the air attack against Dunkerque at Mers-el-Kebir, the sloop HMS Milford transmitted by W/T an ultimatum from Captain Onslow, Commanding Officer of HMS Hermes, provisionally ranked Rear Admiral, in identical terms as the one of Mers-el-Kébir. Richelieu, the previous French battleship design France, the United Kingdom, and the United States signed the Second London Naval Treaty in 1936, though Japan and Italy both refused to do so, which effectively ended the international naval arms control regime begun with the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. The third day, as HMS Resolution had been struck by a torpedo from a French submarine, the British and Free French force retreated. [69] During the first months of 1941, the Richelieu was the first French battleship to be fitted with an early French radar (designated as "electro-magnetic detection"). The midship 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets had to be canceled, and twelve 100 mm (3.9 in)/45 Model 1930 guns in six twin 100 mm (3.9 in) mountings, CAD Model 1931, would instead be fitted, as they had been on the last 10,000 long tons (10,160 t) Treaty cruiser (the Algérie). [51], As on the Dunkerque, the underwater protection consisted of a sandwich of void spaces, light bulkheads, liquid loading compartments or compartments filled with a rubber-based water-excluding compound (ébonite-mousse), and a heavy internal holding bulkhead to absorb the explosion of a torpedo head. The conning tower was better protected, with 406 mm (16.0 in) on the North Carolina and South Dakota classes and with 445 mm (17.5 in) on the Iowa class. Just some stored parts and material would have been declared war booty and registered as Battleship S.[203], French naval ship classes of World War II, Responding to the German pocket battleships, This infrastructure would have been new building docks or slipways, since the longest one the Navy Yards then had was only 200 meters (660 ft) long, and, It was thought, then, that in the early phase of a gun engagement, it was necessary to have quickly straddling salvoes, and this was supposed easier with four-shell salvoes, than with three-shell ones, as a salvo was generally fired, at this moment of the battle, with half the guns of the broadside, The world's heaviest turrets would be: the three 460 mm (18.1 in) gun turrets on the, The frames, in the French Navy, are numbered, by the distance in meters from the ship's stern, Turret VII was abaft turrets V and VI on the, The port catapult was on frame 9, and the starboard catapult on frame 24. This class followed the design of Dunkerque-class battleships, featuring eight 380 mm guns forward of the superstructure. These guns proved to be the only reliable arms of the Richelieu until 1943, due to the obsolescent, as only optical fire control for the 380 mm battery, or uncompleted for anti-aerial targets, for the 152 mm battery. The auxiliary (B) system for the main artillery was between the funnel and the axial aft 152 mm (6.0 in) turret and had an 8-meter (26 ft) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder. Then, she had the classic existence of a warship during peacetime. It was not before the middle of the next night that the dredging work was finished with very narrow margins for the battleship to pass through, and in the early hours of 19 June, nearly in view of the German vanguard, the Jean Bart – barely 75% completed, her steam engines never having been worked before, and under the threat of German bombers – was taken out of her St. Nazaire's dock by four tugs and reached under her own steam Casablanca, Morocco, on June 22; the average speed on the journey's final leg was 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph). [85], Six 37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935 mountings would have been fitted, four abeam[Clarification needed], The most conspicuous difference in the Richelieu and Dunkerque profiles was the mounting of the fire control director system aft, not on a separate tower located behind the funnel, but on a kind of mack, so that the funnel opening came out obliquely aft underneath the control tower. She took part in the return of French forces to Indochina in 1945, and served into the 1960s. Because of her lack of gunnery radar, she might not have joined the battle during which the German battleship Scharnhorst was sunk, on 26 December 1943. As the explosion was extremely violent, it was conjectured that the impact on the ship was magnified by the shallow water in which she was moored, with less than five metres of water under the keel, and that a torpedo, hitting the depth charges laid earlier in the night, made them explode. The Richelieu class were fast battleships built for the French Navy between the 1930s and 1950s. The radius of possible travel was 9,850 nautical miles (18,240 km; 11,340 mi) at 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph), 8,250 nautical miles (15,280 km; 9,490 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), and 3,450 nautical miles (6,390 km; 3,970 mi) at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). She served with the British Home Fleet from November 1943 to March 1944, participating in an operation off the Norwegian coast in January 1944. 16 × 37 mm (1.5 in) in 8 CAD Modèle 1933 mountings [171], Once in her career (on 30 January 1956), she maneuvered with the Jean Bart for a few hours, before being based in Brest as a gunnery training school. [124], In June 1938, the French Admiralty's choice was tightly linked with the need to maximally use the shipyards where very large ships could be built. [78] She participated in an operation off the northern coast of Norway, covering the Home Fleet aircraft carriers sent to attack the maritime German traffic (Operation Posthorn, 10–12 February 1944). She eventually limped into Singapore at noon on 11 September.[166][167]. They featured a … Couronne(1861) 5,983 tons – hulked 1910. The Richelieu was scrapped in 1968 and the Jean Bart in 1970. On 30 January 1956, for the only time in her career, Richelieu maneuvered with Jean Bart for a few hours. However, they were only armed with nine 280 mm (11 in) guns, the same caliber as the Deutschland class. [48], The maximum fuel load for peace-time cruising was 5,866 tonnes (5,773 long tons), but in wartime this figure was reduced to 4,700 tonnes (4,600 long tons) to maximize the underwater protection system's effectiveness, since filling the liquid loading compartments to the brim created additional pressure on bulkheads instead of absorbing the pressure of explosion. Two groups of nine Oerlikon 20 mm single mountings were installed, the first atop the former aviation hangar (nicknamed «the cemetery»), the second abaft the wavebreaker on the fore castle (nicknamed «the trench»). A second proposal, less expensive but always with the same main artillery turret, had seventeen 127 mm (5.0 in) double turrets and twenty Bofors quad 40 mm (1.6 in) mountings and would have yielded a kind of AA battleship. Therefore, the 37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935 was expected to have a firing rate of 120 rpm or above. Project C lead to an excess displacement of 5,000 tons over the limit of 35,000 tons, so it was not proposed to the Chief of the Navy General Staff. Before 1943 refit [88], The lookout and target designation facilities were similar in principle to the Dunkerque's. [31][32] They are all superior to those for earlier battleships (such as the Dunkerque) or those given for the King George V-class battleships, (12,500 tons and 34.80%)[33] or for the Littorio-class battleships (13,600 tonnes (13,400 long tons) weight of armor and 36% of 37,750 tonnes (37,150 long tons) standard displacement). [18]), On the background, the quarter deck (14 August 1943 picture),[19] with four quad 40 mm (1.6 in) Bofors mountings, and nine 20 mm (0.79 in) Oerlikon AA single mountings, on the former aircraft hangar; On the foreground, two single 20 mm (0.79 in) Oerlikon mountings on the roof of the axial 152 mm (6.0 in) turret, The French Navy had pioneered a dual-purpose (DP) battery on a battleship,[20] in the early 1930s; seven years later, with the shortcomings seen with the 130 mm (5.1 in) and 152 mm (6.0 in) DP turrets and 37 mm (1.5 in) twin automatic AA mountings, the solution of having a low-angle secondary battery and a high-angle tertiary battery was a feature of the new battleships in construction, as in the Italian and German navies.[21][22][23]. The starboard shafts were badly damaged, the outer one being distorted, and the inner one blocked. French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was originally to have been named Richelieu. The maximum range against sea targets, with a 45° elevation, was 24,500 meters (80,400 ft). [47] They were 6.30 meters (20.7 ft) long versus 5.33 m on the Dunkerque, 4.65 meters (15.3 ft) height versus 5.34 meters (17.5 ft), and moreover 4.50 meters (14.8 ft) wide versus 6.50 meters (21.3 ft). Src: … A breach 9.3 metres (31 ft) long and 8.5 metres (28 ft) high was opened in the hull, and there was a rapid flooding of the compartments abaft the after armored bulwark, and even in the armored citadel, through the cable tunnels which were no longer watertight. She returned via Diego Suarez to Trincomalee, where she arrived on 18 August, learning of the Japanese surrender on 15 August. The Richelieu-class battleships were the last and largest battleships of the French Navy. Only the first two units, the Richelieu and the Jean Bart, were ever completed. (French Equatorial Africa), who had been formerly Gouverneur Général de l'A.O.F. [37] The U.S. Navy (North Carolina class, South Dakota class, and Iowa class) battleships had an equivalent protection. Vice Admiral Durand-Viel, the Chief of the Navy's General Staff, was very concerned about continuity between the Richelieu battleship class and the preceding Dunkerque battleship class (whose lead ship had been ordered only two years before). There was no more firing during this day with the #2 main turret. SAP shells (100 mm (3.9 in) OPf Model 1928, weighing 15 kilograms (33 lb)) would be used for sea targets, with a muzzle velocity of 765 meters per second (2,510 ft/s) and a 15,800 meters (51,800 ft) maximum range, but only 10 rounds per gun were intended, due to the belief that the anti-ship fire would be mainly done by the stronger 152 mm (6.0 in) guns. [117], In 1937, Italy ordered two more Vittorio Veneto-class battleships, to be laid down in 1938. Due to her lack of high explosive shells for attacks against land targets, she was finally designated to join the British Eastern Fleet, in the Indian Ocean, to cover for British battleships undergoing refit. To save weight, particularly in the heights, the anti-ship fire control system for the 152 mm (6.0 in) battery would have not been installed, but the two remaining fire control directors for the 152 mm (6.0 in) battery, on the aft tower and on the fore tower in the upper position, would have been fitted with a stereoscopic 8-meter (26 ft) OPL rangefinder. [55][56], Richelieu at Dakar, in 1941, as there were three fire control directors atop the fore tower, and neutrality tricolor bands on turret II. The battleship emerged with a much more compact fore control tower, topped by only one rangefinder (Richelieu had two ones after her refit). As only less than two hundred SD21 powder charges had been embarked in Brest, the eight hundred powder charges with SD19 propellant for Strasbourg's 330 mm guns left stored at Dakar the previous year, were reconditioned in 600 powder charges for 380 mm guns. In late July, Free French forces took control of three (Middle Congo, , and Chad) of the four colonies of French Equatorial Africa, as well as Cameroon. In April 1941, Richelieu was the first French battleship to be fitted with French early radar, designated as "electro-magnetic detector", Détecteur Electro-Magnétique (D.E.M. France and Italy were, however, authorized to build the replacement tonnage that the Washington Naval Treaty entitled them to lay down. [114], In each Engine Room, there were two sets of turbines, each driving a four-bladed propeller with a diameter of 4.88 meters (16.0 ft). [90], On the after tower, there was only the auxiliary system for the 152 mm (6.0 in) artillery (system 3) with a 6-meter (20 ft) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder. For short range anti-aircraft defence for Dunkerque-class battleships, the French Navy envisaged an automatic version (37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935) of the 37 mm (1.5 in) semi-automatic anti-aircraft turret with twin mountings (CAD Model 1933). French battleship Richelieu (1939), a fast battleship. [5][6] However, the war experience had clearly shown the problem of ensuring the safety of maritime commercial routes against commerce raiders, for which cruisers appeared better suited than battleships; thus, by the late 1920s all the countries which had signed the Washington Treaty undertook the building of new heavy cruiser classes. Jean Bart (1940) – last battleship commissioned in the world BU 1970. She joined the British Home Fleet, which was monitoring the large German warships remaining in Norway. The third unit, the Clemenceau, was laid down in the Salou graving dock as soon as the Richelieu had left it. Two planes were to be stowed in the 25-meter (82 ft) hangar on the same level, wings folded and in line, instead of being placed on the two platforms of a two-tier hangar lift, and two on the catapults with wings deployed. The next operation (Operation Dukedom), in mid-May, to intercept the Haguro, was concluded by the sinking of the heavy cruiser by the 26th Division destroyers, before Richelieu and HMS Cumberland could intervene. In the meantime, the Vichy authorities obtained the authorization from the German Armistice Commission to send, on 9 September, from Toulon towards Libreville (Gabon) three 7,600-ton type light cruisers of the 4th Cruiser Division, and three large destroyers, grouped in Force Y, under Rear Admiral Bourragué. Szerző: Richelieu class battleships inboard profile.svg: Sas1975kr; derivative work: Maxrossomachin [27], Moreover, at the same time, discussions at the Disarmament Subcommittee of the League of Nations had begun in Geneva, about the pursuit of naval armaments limitation policy. She was designed to outclass the German "pocket battleship" Deutschland, which had been laid down in 1929. But, when the ship building yard was occupied by the Germans, in June 1940, the battleship had not been yet formally ordered. Each group of two turrets would have had a fire control system, with a 5-meter (16 ft) OPL rangefinder; for the forward groups this would be on each side of the fore tower, and for the aft turret groups it would be atop the after tower. The boilers were of a new type, so-called Suralimenté, meaning pressure-fired (and thus the abbreviation of Sural) boilers. [66] On 24 April 1941, Richelieu could sail at 14 knots (26 km/h), on three engines. proposed three solutions: five 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets and six 75 mm (3.0 in) single mountings; or four 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets, without the fifth turret (central axial); or with two center line aft turrets in a superfiring position, and eight 75 mm (3.0 in) single mountings, but it was difficult to install this AA battery while keeping it out of the blast effects of the main and secondary batteries. The 380 mm (15 in) shell was 1.905 meters (6.25 ft) long and weighed 884 kilograms (1,949 lb), less than the 406 mm (16.0 in) USS Massachusetts' shell (1,224 kilograms (2,698 lb)),[66] that glancingly hit the Jean Bart at the battle of Casablanca (1942), and some kilos more than the weight of the 381 mm (15.0 in) shells of HMS Barham or HMS Resolution (875 kilograms (1,929 lb)),[67] that lightly damaged the Richelieu at the battle of Dakar (1940). The day after, the gunnery trials were carried out, six shots being fired for each 380 mm and 100 mm guns, «without major damage», but the main battery replenishment system gave concern, as a quarter of an hour was necessary to hoist one shell and its powder charges from the magazine to the barrel. In October 1955, Jean Bart replaced Richelieu as flagship of the South Group of Schools. The sixth of the seven 406 mm (16.0 in) shells which hit her exploded in a magazine of 152 mm (6.0 in) turret, which was empty as these turrets had not been installed. [58] This method has been effective at Mers-el-Kebir, when the first British 381 mm (15.0 in) shell striking the Dunkerque ultimately hit the second 330 mm (13.0 in) turret; this killed all crew in the turret's right half, but the left half remained operational. The 100 mm (3.9 in) mountings were fitted on Richelieu in April–May 1940.[84]. One 38-centimetre (15 in) gun had an explosion in the breech and the propellant for the shell was thought to be the cause. Initially two ships were ordered in 1935 in response Richelieu was a French fast battleship the lead ship of the Richelieu class Built as a response to … HMS Hermes whose aircraft torpedoed Richelieu, at Dakar, on 7 July 1940, and in the background, HMS Dorsetshire. [65] The Dakar dockyard capacities were only able to remove the starboard central propeller with a floating crane, but not to repair the blocked shaft. [81], At the war's very beginning (in November 1939), it became evident that the projected 37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935 (automatic anti-aircraft twin) mountings would not be provided in time for the Richelieu's completion; thus, a drastic revision of the AA battery was needed. Cheers. [43] It was then the greatest mechanical power installed on a battleship, surpassed only on U.S. Navy Iowa-class battleships in 1943–1944. It really is. 50 × 20 mm (0.79 in) CAS Oerlikon mountings All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may … The Treaty fixed limits for new battleships of 35,000-long-ton (35,562 t) standard displacement, and 406 mm (16.0 in) for the main battery's artillery caliber. The maximum width was around 7 meters (23 ft). The ship was afloat in the fitting-out basin; however, this was separated from the navigational channel by an earth dam. Work progressed slowly, as the Clemenceau did not have priority in naval building unlike the first pair of the Richelieu class. Its prototype was almost complete in June 1940 but never flew. 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It 'd be probably finished today they featured a … Richelieu class July... Anti-Aircraft machine guns 3,000 tons lower lookout station ( veille basse ) for contacts. Because of the No Maria of Genoa in September 1968 5 September to participate in the of! Forward superfiring positions ] on 29 December, she sailed to attack Sabang and Sumatra ( Operation,. 1.85 meters ( 23 ft ) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder damaged turret reconditioned powder! Battleship Richelieu it, please do so ship was equipped with 380 mm....

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