23. mai 2019

True. ), Evolutionary History of the “Robust” Australopithecines, Aldine de Gruyter, New York (1988), pp. This species has been recovered at other South African localities in association with stone and bone tools. Usage notes . Paranthropus boisei, arguably the best known of the “robust australopithecines,” (the species included in the genus Paranthropus—Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus, and Paranthropus boisei) is known from East African sites dating between 2.4 and 1.4 million years ago. They were well-muscled species and roughly 1.3 m in height. They were bipedal and probably lived 2.7 million years ago. False "Taung Baby" is a nickname for Australopithecus afarensis. Hyponyms (genus): Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Paranthropus robustus – species It is divided broadly to three groups; Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei. Particularly regarding cranial features, the development of P. robustus seemed to be in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex". Paranthropus boisei was initially known as Zinjanthropus boisei and some P. robustus specimens were originally named Paranthropus crassidens. Paranthropus boisei definition, an extinct species of very rugged, large-toothed bipedal hominin, originally named Zinjanthropus boisei and later Australopithecus boisei, that lived in eastern Africa about 1–2 million years ago. Robert "Boom Boom" Broom is credited with the discovery of paranthropus robustus. Paranthropus (from Greek παρα, para "beside"; άνθρωπος, ánthropos "human") is a genus of extinct hominins.Also known as robust australopithecines, they were bipedal hominids that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominids (Australopithecus) 2.7 million years ago. Paranthropus robustus is known from several fossil sites in South Africa and lived from about 2 to 1 million years ago. This species lived between 1.8 million and 1.2 million years ago in South Africa. True, these australopithecines were bipedal and succeed after Australopithecus afarensis and africanus. Grine (Ed. Like australopithecines, P. robustus exhibits a high degree of sexual dimorphism, molarized premolars, and lower limb adaptations for bipedalism. Paranthropus robustus lived in a dry environment like lots of common baboons now and also had large teeth and canine teeth to help it survive in that environment, just like the baboon today. 2.2–1.5 million years ago), possessing a small brain, small incisors and canines, and large postcanine dentition, considered a side branch of the human phylogenetic tree. This is a preview of subscription content, Broom, R. & Robinson, J.T. Paranthropus boisei or Australopithecus boisei was an early hominin, described as the largest of the Paranthropus genus (robust australopithecines). Paranthropus were robust and descended from gracile australopithecines. Typical of Paranthropus, P. robustus exhibits post-canine megadontia with enormous cheek teeth but human-sized incisors and canines. This genus is actually composed of 3 different hominid species which have helped scientists to link modern humans to our earlier human ancestors. Specifically, P. boisei fossils have been found at sites in Tanzania (Olduvai … Swartkrans ape-man. Quadrupedal animals, who go on all fours, very rarely support their weight on one … It is the most robust form of the robust australopithicenes, and is specialized towards heavy chewing.. The cheeks project so far from the face that, when in top-view, the nose appears to sit at the bottom of a co… Early in the twentieth century (the 1920s–1930s), three important discoveries were made in Southern Africa: the Taung Child – the first known Australopithecus; an adult specimen from Sterkfontein (then named Plesianthropus); and Paranthropusfrom Kromdraai. 142.11.226.8. 2013). It is largely known from skulls and teeth, but there are some new fossil skeleton discoveries that suggest it may have also used its arms for climbing in … P. robustus hand morphology suggests a grip capable of tool use. (1952). Human bipedality, or upright walking, caused many changes to the skeleton. (2018). al. The genera and species of the, © Springer International Publishing AG 2017, Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.005, Division of Psychology, School of Social and Health Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6, Reference Module Humanities and Social Sciences, Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, Parental Investment and Sexual Selection (Trivers Foundational Theory), Parental Investment Theory (Middle-Level Theory in Evolutionary Psychology). 149-172 Both Paranthropus and Australopithecus are extinct hominins. 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