23. mai 2019

In H.P. As Harald had left no forces in York, Harold Godwinson marched right through the town to Stamford Bridge. [114] Tostig had only 12 ships, his connections being far more significant. [87], According to historian Knut Helle, Harald completed the first phase of what he has termed the "national territorial unification of Norway". Furthermore, this may in turn have presented Harald with opportunities to fight against bandits who preyed on Christian pilgrims. Getting rejected for not being important enough, Harald decided to make himself king of all of Norway to get her affection. [130], Harald is described by Snorri Sturluson to have been physically "larger than other men and stronger". He arrived in Sigtuna in Sweden, probably at the end of 1045[62] or in early 1046. Harald's most famous epithet is Old Norse harðráði, which has been translated variously as 'hard in counsel', 'tyrannical',[3] ‘tyrant’, ‘hard-ruler’, ‘ruthless’, ‘savage in counsel’, ‘tough’, and ‘severe’. In early 1064, Haakon entered the Uplands and collected their taxes, the region thus effectively threatening to renounce their loyalty to Harald. [18][19][20][21], In 2015, he became the world's first reigning monarch to visit Antarctica, specifically the Norwegian dependency Queen Maud Land. Although (according to non-saga sources) the English forces were held up at the bridge for some time by a single gigantic Norwegian, allowing Harald and Tostig to regroup into a shield-wall formation, Harald's army was in the end heavily beaten. In July 2005, the King and his crew aboard the royal sailboat Fram XV won the gold medal at the European Championships in Sweden. When the dismissed ships were out of reach, Sweyn's fleet finally appeared, possibly also with 300 ships. Harald V received an honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford University in 2006 (as did his father, King Olav, in 1937, and his grandfather, King Haakon, in 1943). He receives foreign envoys, and formally opens parliament every October delivering a speech from the throne during each opening. The King is deeply concerned with environmental issues, and served for 20 years as the President of the Norwegian chapter of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF Norge).The King and the Royal Family have attended the Olympics on many occasions. On 17 August the Crown Princess and her children left for the United States from Petsamo, Finland, aboard the United States Army transport ship American Legion.[3]. They guard the Royal residences, including the Royal Palace, the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, and the Royal Mausoleum at Akershus Castle. [121], Early on 25 September, Harald and Tostig departed their landing place at Riccall with most of their forces, but left a third of their forces behind. Another account does not describe the escape so dramatically. News of the invasion soon reached the earls Morcar of Northumbria and Edwin of Mercia, and they fought against Harald's invading army two miles (3 km) south of York at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September. He is the first cousin once removed of King Philippe of Belgium and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, the second cousin of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and the second cousin once removed of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. [40][41], Harald was not affected by Maniakes' conflict with Emperor Michael IV, and received honours and respect upon his return to Constantinople. [149], The alternative history book Crusader Gold (2007) by marine archeologist David Gibbins features Harald as a key figure, as it follows him in acquiring the lost Menorah among his treasures during his service in the Byzantine Varangian Guard. Although the sources differ on the circumstances, the next event nonetheless led to the murder of Einar by Harald's men, which threatened to throw Norway into a state of civil war. Starting in Romerike, his campaign continued into Hedmark, Hadeland and Ringerike. Harald III Sigurdsson, byname Harald the Ruthless, Norwegian Harald Hardråde, (born 1015, Norway—died Sept. 25, 1066, Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire, Eng. The latter party reached Sweden on the night of 10 April, but although Crown Princess Märtha was Swedish-born, they encountered problems at the border station. On 17 January 1991, King Olav V passed away at the Royal Villa in Holmenkollen. The son of Sigurd Sow (Syr), a chieftain in eastern Norway… Harald V (born February 21, 1937) is the King of Norway.Harald was the third child and only son of King Olav V and Princess Märtha of Sweden. [153], Harald Hardrada leads the Norwegian civilization in the 2016 4X video game Civilization VI developed by Firaxis Games. [49] The sagas state that Harald was arrested for defrauding the emperor of his treasure, as well as for requesting marriage[50] with an apparently fictional niece or granddaughter[14] of Zoe, called Maria (his suit supposedly being turned down by the empress because she wanted to marry Harald herself). Even then, the king's veto power is suspensive, not absolute as is the case with British monarchs. Until 2012, the King of Norway was, according to the constitution, the formal head of the Church of Norway. [3], Harald spent the following days in Sälen before moving to Prince Carl Bernadotte's home in Frötuna on 16 April. [73] On hearing the news of Magnus's death, Harald quickly gathered the local leaders in Norway and declared himself king of Norway as well as of Denmark. Following the death of his grandfather Haakon VII in 1957, Harald became crown prince as his father became king. [50] The sources also disagree on how Harald got out of prison, but he may have been helped by someone outside to escape in the midst of the revolt that had begun against the new emperor. He was clearly interested in advancing Christianity in Norway, which can be seen by the continued building and improvement of churches throughout his reign. [65], Having heard of Sweyn's defeat by Magnus, Harald met up with his fellow exile in Sweden (who was also his nephew), as well as with the Swedish king Anund Jacob,[14] and the three joined forces against Magnus. On 26 April the group moved to Drottningholm in Stockholm. [14] It is possible that Harald maintained contacts with Byzantine emperors after he became king, which could suggest a background for his church policies. Harald married Sonja Haraldsen in 1968, their relationship having initially being controversial due to her status as a commoner. [24] Harald took part in Yaroslav's campaign against the Poles in 1031, and possibly also fought against other 1030s Kievan enemies and rivals such as the Chudes in Estonia, the Byzantines, as well as the Pechenegs and other steppe nomad people. The current King belongs to the House of Glücksburg, which has ruled Norway since 1905. Although initially successful, Harald was defeated and killed in an attack by Harold Godwinson's forces in the Battle of Stamford Bridge, which wiped out almost his entire army. [95] Still facing opposition from the farmers, Harald embarked on a campaign to crush the areas that had withheld their taxes. Harald was the third child and only son of King Olav V and Princess Märtha of Sweden.He was second in the line of succession at the time of his birth, behind his father. He later attended the Cavalry Officers' Candidate School at Trandum, followed by enrollment at the Norwegian Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1959. King Harald's decision to accept two more commoners into the royal family, Crown Princess Mette-Marit and Ari Behn, has been interpreted as a sign of modernization and adjustment. In addition, he unsuccessfully claimed both the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. On 8 May 2018, the King's constitutional status as holy was dissolved, while leaving his sovereign immunity intact. Olav only relented when Harald told his father that if he was not allowed to marry Sonja he would not marry at all. [3] However, when the King and Crown Prince inquired of Swedish foreign minister Christian Günther whether they could sleep one night in Sweden without being interned, they were denied. Harald succeeded his father as king in 1991, with Haakon becoming his heir apparent. The emperor was in the end dragged out of his sanctuary, blinded and exiled to a monastery, and the sagas claim that it was Harald himself who blinded Michael V (or at least claimed to have done so). Who, having searched thoroughly the length of the northern ocean in ships, finally had before his eyes the dark failing boundaries of the savage world, and, by retracing his steps, with difficulty barely escaped the deep abyss in safety. [51], Harald became extremely rich during his time in the east, and secured the wealth collected in Constantinople by shipments to Kievan Rus' for safekeeping (with Yaroslav the Wise acting as safekeeper for his fortune). [4] While Judith Jesch has argued for 'severe' as the best translation,[5] Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes prefer 'resolute'. [14] In Harald's absence, the throne of Norway had been restored to Magnus the Good, an illegitimate son of Olaf. [63] Since Cnut the Great's sons had chosen to abandon Norway and instead fight over England, and his sons and successors Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut had died young, Magnus's position as king had been secured. At Dunfermline, he met Tostig's ally, Malcolm III of Scotland, who gave him around 2,000 Scottish soldiers. [19], After the defeat at the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald managed to escape with the aid of Rögnvald Brusason (later Earl of Orkney) to a remote farm in Eastern Norway. In 1048, he plundered Jutland, and in 1049 he pillaged and burned Hedeby, at the time the most important Danish trade center, and one of the best protected and most populous towns in Scandinavia. A slightly different form of Christianity was thus introduced in Norway from the rest of northern Europe, although the East–West Schism had not yet taken place. [6] The Doris Kearns Goodwin book No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and the Home Front in World War II contains a picture of the King (then Prince) playing with FDR's dog, Fala, on the North Lawn of the White House in 1944. He likely spent at least part of his time in the town of Staraya Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg), arriving there in the first half of 1031. When he was a young man, he fell in love with a princess named Ellisif. Before his death, he had decided that Sweyn was to inherit Denmark and Harald to inherit Norway. [40] The Strategikon indicates that the ranks awarded to Harald were rather low, since Harald reportedly was "not angry for just having been appointed to manglabites or spatharokandidatos". Sweyn, did not appear at the agreed time, and Harald thus sent home his non-professional soldiers (bóndaherrin), which had made up half of his forces. [53] If he participated in polutasvarf three times, these occasions must have been the deaths of Romanos III, Michael IV, and Michael V, in which Harald would have opportunities, beyond his legitimate revenues, to carry off immense wealth. The Royal Family. Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway. Prince Harald was born at the Skaugum estate during the reign of his grandfather King Haakon VII and was baptised in the Royal Chapel of the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March 1937 by Bishop Johan Lunde. [112] En route, he stopped at the Norwegian-held islands of Shetland and Orkney, where he collected additional troops, including Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson, the Earls of Orkney. His harsh suppression of lesser Norwegian chieftains cost him their military support in his unsuccessful struggle to conquer Denmark (1045–62).. If correct, this would also have allowed Tostig to increase both their chances by simultaneously supporting an invasion by William,[108] who also claimed the throne. [111] Before leaving Norway, he had Magnus proclaimed king of Norway, and left Tora behind, taking with him Elisiv, his daughters, and Olaf. [80], The second, more significant battle, a naval encounter, was the Battle of Niså on 9 August 1062. [53] When he arrived in Sweden, according to the skald Tjodolv Arnorsson, his ship was unbalanced by its heavy load of gold. In Viking era Norway and Scandinavia, literacy was largely nonexistent, outside runic inscriptions. [44] He is also an honorary fellow at Balliol College, Oxford. Kelly DeVries has suggested that Harald "may even have known of and sought out the legendary land called Vinland, which Viking sailors had discovered only a short time before", which Adam mentions earlier in the same passage to have been widely reported in Denmark and Norway. Having made it seem an attack from Normandy was imminent, he then sailed north, while his brother and most of his troops remained in the south, waiting for William. Notably, Harald also had to agree to share half of his wealth with Magnus, who at the time was effectively bankrupt and badly in need of funds. An avid sailor,[8] Harald represented Norway in the yachting events of the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964,[9] Mexico City in 1968,[6] and Munich in 1972. [30] He is patron of the Anglo-Norse Society in London, together with Queen Elizabeth II, his second cousin. He stayed there for some time to heal his wounds, and thereafter (possibly up to a month later) journeyed north over the mountains to Sweden. King Harald and Queen Sonja of Norway, both 83, have become the latest royals to announce they have received the Covid-19 vaccination. The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. [152], Harald's unorthodox departure from Constantinople is featured in music by the Finnish folk metal band Turisas in the song "The Great Escape"; in addition, he is followed loosely throughout the story of the albums The Varangian Way (2007) and Stand Up and Fight (2011). 199 & 276–278 & 284 & 290, Harold Godwinson (also known as Harold of Wessex), Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, "Det store norske leksikon" (The Great Norwegian Encyclopedia), The Early Kings of Norway, the Issue of Agnatic Succession, and the Settlement of Iceland, "Civilization VI: Harald Hardrada Leads Norway", "Steam Community :: Crusader Kings II :: Achievements", Haraldr Sigurðarson’s arrival in Rus’ and his participation in the campaign against Poland in 1031, An Account of the Ancient History of the Norwegian Kings, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harald_Hardrada&oldid=997814690, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Old Norse-language text, Articles containing Norwegian-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 10:37. [14], Harald also continued to advance Christianity in Norway, and archaeological excavations show that churches were built and improved during his reign. Similar to his campaigns (then together with Sweyn) against Magnus's rule in Denmark, most of his campaigns against Sweyn consisted of swift and violent raids on the Danish coasts. Although Harald was victorious in most of the engagements, he was never successful in occupying Denmark. The present monarch is King Harald V, who has reigned since 17 January 1991, succeeding his father, Olav V… [13] Together with Queen Sonja, the king has also for decades attempted to establish a palace museum in Oslo.[14][15]. [7][8][6], Sverrir Jakobsson has suggested that 'fairhair' 'might be the name by which King Harald wished himself to be known. Modern historians have speculated that Harald may have been in a party sent to escort pilgrims to Jerusalem (possibly including members of the Imperial family) following the peace agreement, as it was also agreed that the Byzantines were allowed to repair the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. [14] In his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, and admired Olaf as his role model. [115] The chronicler, John of Worcester, suggests he left Flanders in May or June, raiding the heartland of Harold's estates in southern England, from the Isle of Wight to Sandwich. The Crown Prince carried the Norwegian flag at the opening parade of the 1964 Summer Olympics. [88], Before the Battle of Niså, Harald had been joined by Haakon Ivarsson, who distinguished himself in the battle and gained Harald's favour. By 1035, the Byzantines had pushed the Arabs out of Asia Minor to the east and southeast, and Harald took part in campaigns that went as far east as the Tigris River and Euphrates River in Mesopotamia, where according to his skald (poet) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (recounted in the sagas) he participated in the capture of eighty Arab strongholds, a number which historians Sigfus Blöndal and Benedikt Benedikz see no particular reason to question. According to Lee M. Hollander, composing poetry was normal for Norwegian kings, but Harald was the only one who "showed a decided talent. [103], Accepting he could not conquer Denmark, Harald switched attention to England; his claim was based on a 1038 agreement between Magnus and its previous ruler, Harthacnut, who died childless in 1042. Harald I, byname Harald Fairhair, or Finehair, Norwegian Harald Hårfager, Old Norse Harald Hárfagri, (born c. 860—died c. 940), the first king to claim sovereignty over all Norway. Harald, who is 83, was taken to the National Hospital in … This is in accordance not only with provisions of the Constitution, but with conventions established since the definitive establishment of parliamentary rule in Norway in 1884. After the agreement, Harald went to Oslo and sent tax collectors to the Uplands, only to find that the farmers would withhold their taxes until Haakon arrived. The Royal House of Norway belongs to the House of Glücksburg.The members of the Norwegian Royal House are Their Majesties King Harald and Queen Sonja and Their Royal Highnesses Crown Prince Haakon, Crown Princess Mette-Marit and Princess Ingrid Alexandra. The most enterprising Prince Haraldr of the Norwegians lately attempted this [sea]. [75], Harald also wanted to re-establish Magnus's rule over Denmark,[14] and in the long term probably sought to restore Cnut the Great's "North Sea Empire" in its entirety. The generations are numbered from the ascension of, *Prince of Denmark by birth, but created prince of Norway, Note: Within parentheses, the year when inducted into the Order, Coronation requirement discarded by constitutional amendment in 1908. While the Constitution vests the King with executive power, he is not politically responsible for exercising it. [83] During the battle, Harald actively shot with his bow, like most others in the early phase of the battle. Harald visited Norwegian servicemen training in the United States. [77] While his first proposal to invade Denmark fell through, the next year Harald embarked on what would turn into constant warfare against Sweyn, from 1048 almost yearly until 1064. [75][76] Einar, an opponent of Harald, claimed that "to follow Magnus dead was better than to follow any other king alive". Harald V swore the Royal Oath in the. He became the first Norwegian-born monarch since Magnus VII abdicated in 1343, a gap of 648 years. Harald V, (born February 21, 1937, Skaugum, Norway), king of Norway from 1991, succeeding his father, Olav V. Harald was the youngest of three children born to Olav and Crown Princess Märtha. William of Malmesbury states that Harald was arrested for defiling a noble woman, while according to Saxo Grammaticus he was imprisoned for murder. Before becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus' and of the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire. [25], When the King and Queen turned 80 years old in 2017, the King decided to open the former royal stables to the public as a gift to his wife, the Queen. The couple had two children, Märtha Louise and Haakon. While the Constitution nominally vests the King with the power to appoint the government, in practice the government must maintain the confidence of Parliament. [90][91], It was from his power-struggle with the Norwegian aristocracy that Harald got himself the reputation that gave him the nickname "Hardrada", or "the hard ruler". The infantry battalion His Majesty the King's Guard are considered the King's and the Royal Family's bodyguards. [5] This epithet predominates in the later Icelandic saga-tradition.[6]. Harald's contribution to the strengthening of Norway's monarchy was the enforcement of a policy that only the king could retain a hird, thus centralising power away from local warlords. At the time of Harald's birth, he was 2nd in line of succession to the Norwegian throne following his father, Crown Prince Olav; and also was 16th in line of succession to the British throne as a descendant of Queen Victoria through his paternal grandmother, Queen Maud. [98] According to the later sagas, Harald founded Oslo, where he spent much time. He succeeded to the throne of Norway upon the death of his father Olav V on 17 January 1991. From there, he probably scouted the Norwegian fleet, preparing a surprise attack. He also imported bishops, priests and monks from abroad, especially from Kievan Rus' and the Byzantine Empire. [142] It is nonetheless possible that such a marriage could take place in Norway in the 11th century, and although Harald had two wives, only Elisiv is noted to have held the title of Queen. By this time, he had according to Snorri Sturluson become the "leader over all the Varangians". [97], Harald's reign was marked by his background as a military commander, as he often solved disputes with harsh force. He thus differed from his two older brothers, who were more similar to their father, down-to-earth and mostly concerned with maintaining the farm. Harald Sigurdsson, also known as Harald of Norway ( Old Norse: Haraldr Sigurðarson; c. 1015 – 25 September 1066) and given the epithet Hardrada ( Old Norse: harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066. One of the greatest of the 9th-century Scandinavian warrior chiefs, he gained effective control of Norway’s western coastal districts but probably had only nominal authority in the other parts of Norway. Norway’s monarch, King Harald V, has been rushed to the largest hospital in Norway on Friday morning. [36] Harald fought with the Catepan of Italy, Michael Dokeianos with initial success, but the Normans, led by their former ally William Iron Arm, defeated the Byzantines in the Battle of Olivento in March,[37] and in the Battle of Montemaggiore in May. The Royal Family takes great pleasure in sports and outdoor recreational activities. In 1950, a large relief by Anne Grimdalen, also of Harald on horseback, was unveiled on the western façade of the Oslo City Hall. The co-rule ended abruptly the next year as Magnus died, and Harald thus became the sole ruler of Norway. [22] Harald's brother Olaf Haraldsson had previously been in exile to Yaroslav following the revolt in 1028,[23] and Morkinskinna says that Yaroslav embraced Harald first and foremost because he was the brother of Olaf. Sigurd was a petty king of Ringerike, and among the strongest and wealthiest chieftains in the Uplands. In response, the army and the chieftains, headed by Einar Thambarskelfir, opposed any plans of invading Denmark. [71][72], In 1047, Magnus and Harald went to Denmark with their leidang forces. [107], Harold's brother Tostig Godwinson, formerly Earl of Northumbria, now appeared on the scene; hoping to regain his titles and lands, he reportedly approached both William and Sweyn Estridsson for their support. 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